Targum pseudo jonathan dating

Though some form of synagogue worship was known in the times preceding the captivity under the direction probably of the prophets (2 Kings ), it must have become weak and ineffective.With the arrival of Ezra there was a revival of the study of the Law, and with that the necessity for the interpretation of it in language which the people could understand. Language of the Targums: From the facts above narrated, this language was of necessity Aramaic.

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This threefold process implies more than merely distinct enunciation.

If this passage is compared with Ezra it would seem that mephorash ought to mean "interpreted." The most natural explanation is that alongside of the readers of the Law there were interpreters, meturghemanim, who repeated in Aramaic what had been read in Hebrew.

It is unfortunate that he gives no reference to any Assyrian document.

Jastrow derives it from the Assyrian r-g-m, "to speak aloud," an etymology which suits the origin of the Targums.

In the family they might retain their mother tongue for a time, but this would yield at length to continuous pressure from without.

In Palestine a similar process had been going on in the absence of the captives.The language common to all these, in addition to their native dialect, was Aramaic.The Jewish inhabitants that had been left in the land would, like their relatives in Babylonia, have become accustomed to the use of Aramaic, to the exclusion, more or less complete, of Hebrew. Away from the site of their destroyed temple, the exiles did not, like those in Upper Egypt, erect another temple in which to offer sacrifices.See Muss-Arnolt, Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language, 1191, and the references there given.The word is used as the Aramaic interpretation of shiggayon (Psalms 7:1), a term the precise force of which is yet unfixed.Elaborate rules are laid down in the Talmud for this interpretation; how far these were those actually used we cannot be absolutely certain.

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